Postal is a fully-featured open-source mail delivery platform for incoming & outgoing e-mail and gives you all the tools and features needed to build a full mailing system for your business.
What is the SMTP Server?
We have described it in detail about this in our another blog “What is a SMTP Server?“. But if you want know it in brief, here it is:
SMTP is that thing that allows you to send emails over the internet.
SMTP stands for “Simple Mail Transfer Protocol”. It's a Concept in Networking that you don't have to worry about.
Just Know that SMTP is the technical thing that is responsible for delivering emails over the internet.
What do we mean by Sending Unlimited Emails?
When we say unlimited emails, this means that we can send unlimited emails from our server, there are no restrictions by companies or monthly plans to buy or so.
It's your server, you can send as much as your server can handle in terms of resources. So when you have more CPU and RAM, you can send more emails and so on.
Let's Start The SMTP Server Setup
Ok, let's start the real work! But, before we start, you need to know what is required.
Requirements to Setup SMTP Server.
In order to Build and Setup an SMTP Server, you will mainly need two things:
1. Domain name
When you send emails, you will be sending from an email address like this one:
So if you don't have a domain yet, go and get one now in order to continue the setup.
How to get a domain? Simply you buy one! And it costs around 10$/year, so it's not that big deal!
Here in this course, we will be using Namecheap to get my domain, but you can use any other service if you want, all work in the same way, and if you need any help, we will be here 🙂.
Got a Domain? Great! ✔️ Let's continue.
2. VPS Server with Port 25 opened.
What is a VPS server?
If you don't know what is a VPS server, simply it's a computer (a server) running in the cloud that you buy from a Web Hosting or Cloud Services company. And it's publicly accessible with a Public IP.
A VPS can be used to host your websites with higher performance and can be used to run a machine 24/7 in the cloud to do any task you want.
Port 25 open??
We mentioned that the VPS must have port 25 opened, what does this mean?
We don't want to bother your head dealing with technical stuff but, in short, any network service or software uses a certain port to communicate over the internet or network. For example:
- Connecting remotely to another Windows Machine using RDP software works over port 3389.
- SQL database systems like MYSQL on our computer works over port 3306.
- Connecting to a Linux machine remotely to manage it with SSH, uses port 22.
- When you surf the web and open websites, we use port 80. and so on.
By default, all servers and computers have a firewall running which blocks all ports except the ones you want. So, to use a certain service, we need to open that port in the firewall.
What you have to know also, that ports can be blocked and opened in two ways, incoming and outgoing, the following diagram will make things clearer:
When you get a VPS server, just make sure that the company allows Port 25 and don't block it, because some companies do this to protect from spammers.
Here is a list of some companies that allows port 25 by default:
Are there any other Companies? Yes, you can contact the support of any company you want and ask if they block any ports by default. If not, then perfect, you can go with it.
Feel free to use any VPS company you want, It's up to you!
You can also sign up on DigitalOcean through this coupon link to get free $100 to test everything for free.
Or start with Contabo which we think is the cheapest VPS service that you can use, we have 2 servers configured with Contabo.
- Ubuntu 22.04 or 20.04 or 18.04 x64 as your operating system
- You can start with 1 CPU/2 GB RAM (And resize later).
Got your VPS? Great! ✔️ Let's continue.
VPS Server basic configuration
Now we have our new Ubuntu VPS server, let’s prepare it out for setup.
- Press Win + R on your keyboard.
- Type cmd, and press Enter. A new window will open.
- In the window, type ssh username@ip-address (replace username with the username of your server and ip-address with the IP address of your server)
First, check your hostname:
If you don’t see a form of ANYTING.YOURDOMAIN.COM, then you need to change the hostname using the following command:
sudo hostname server.domain.com
Where the host is anything you want. Our domain for this tutorial is sapnaaz.com, so the command will look like this:
sudo hostname postal.sapnaaz.com
Map your domain name
Host: postal (Whatever you have chosen) Points To: YOUR_SERVER_IP
Done? ✔️ Let's continue.
Install Postal Mail Server on Ubuntu 22.04/20.04/18.04
The installation of Postal Mail Server on Ubuntu is not as complicated as others say. By sparing some minutes and following below few steps, you should have Postal Mail Server running on Ubuntu 22.04/20.04/18.04 server.
Step 1: Update your system
Like all other installations, we start the installation by ensuring our system is updated.
sudo apt update sudo apt -y upgrade
Perform a reboot if it is required:
[ -f /var/run/reboot-required ] && sudo reboot -f
Then install git once the system is up
sudo apt -y install git curl jq
Step 2: Install Docker & Docker Compose
Import Docker repository GPG key:
curl -fsSL https://download.docker.com/linux/ubuntu/gpg | sudo gpg --dearmor -o /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/docker-archive-keyring.gpg
With GPG key imported you can add Docker repository to your Ubuntu system.
sudo add-apt-repository "deb [arch=amd64] https://download.docker.com/linux/ubuntu $(lsb_release -cs) stable"
Finally install Docker CE on Ubuntu 22.04/20.04/18.04:
sudo apt update sudo apt install docker-ce docker-ce-cli containerd.io
Add your user account to docker group.
sudo usermod -aG docker $USER newgrp docker
Confirm successful installation by checking Docker version
$ docker version Client: Docker Engine - Community Version: 20.10.16 API version: 1.41 Go version: go1.17.10 Git commit: aa7e414 Built: Thu May 12 09:18:18 2022 OS/Arch: linux/amd64 Context: default Experimental: true Server: Docker Engine - Community Engine: Version: 20.10.16 API version: 1.41 (minimum version 1.12) Go version: go1.17.10 Git commit: f756502 Built: Thu May 12 09:16:22 2022 OS/Arch: linux/amd64 Experimental: false containerd: Version: 1.6.4 GitCommit: 212e8b6fa2f44b9c21b2798135fc6fb7c53efc16 runc: Version: 1.1.1 GitCommit: v1.1.1-0-g52de29d docker-init: Version: 0.19.0 GitCommit: de40ad0
Download the latest Compose
curl -s https://api.github.com/repos/docker/compose/releases/latest | grep browser_download_url | grep docker-compose-linux-x86_64 | cut -d '"' -f 4 | wget -qi -
Make the binary file executable.
chmod +x docker-compose-linux-x86_64
Move the file to your PATH.
sudo mv docker-compose-linux-x86_64 /usr/local/bin/docker-compose
$ docker-compose version Docker Compose version v2.6.1
Step 3: Install MySQL / MariaDB database server
The other requirement of Postal Mail server is a database server.
Now, you can install MariaDB in the docker container.
docker run -d \ --name postal-mariadb \ -p 127.0.0.1:3306:3306 \ --restart always \ -e MARIADB_DATABASE=postal \ -e MARIADB_ROOT_PASSWORD=postalpassword \ mariadb
Step 4: Install and Configure RabbitMQ
Postal uses RabbitMQ for queueing. RabbitMQ is necessary to process messages and distribute the loads
To install it, run the following commands
docker run -d \ --name postal-rabbitmq \ -p 127.0.0.1:5672:5672 \ --restart always \ -e RABBITMQ_DEFAULT_USER=postal \ -e RABBITMQ_DEFAULT_PASS=password \ -e RABBITMQ_DEFAULT_VHOST=postalvhost \ rabbitmq:3.8
Now we have installed all the prerequisite packages, it’s time to install Postal
Step 5: Install and Configure Postal on Ubuntu 22.04/20.04/18.04
Cloning the Postal repository
sudo git clone https://postalserver.io/start/install /opt/postal/install
Create a symlink for Postal binary
sudo ln -s /opt/postal/install/bin/postal /usr/bin/postal
You’ll need these records for accessing the API, management interface & SMTP server.
You can configure a global SPF record for your mail server which means domains don’t need to each individually reference your server IPs. This allows you to make changes in the future.
|spf.postal.yourdomain.com||TXT||v=spf1 ip4:Your_Server_IP ~all|
If you wish to receive an incoming e-mail by forwarding messages directly to routes in Postal, you’ll need to configure a domain for this just to point to your server using an MX record.
|rp.postal.yourdomain.com||TXT||v=spf1 a mx include:spf.rp.postal.yourdomain.com ~all|
Run the command below and replace postal.yourdomain.com with the actual hostname you want to access your Postal web interface at.
$ sudo postal bootstrap postal.example.com Latest version is: 2.1.1 => Creating /opt/postal/config/postal.yml => Creating /opt/postal/config/Caddyfile => Creating signing private key
This will generate three files in /opt/postal/config.
- postal.yml is the main postal configuration file
- signing.key is the private key used to sign various things in Postal
- Caddyfile is the configuration for the Caddy webserver
Open Postal configuration file.
sudo vim /opt/postal/config/postal.yml
At the minimum, have the following settings:
web: # The host that the management interface will be available on host: postal.yourdomain.com # The protocol that requests to the management interface should happen on protocol: https main_db: # Specify the connection details for your MySQL database host: localhost username: root password: postalpassword database: postal message_db: # Specify the connection details for your MySQL server that will be house the # message databases for mail servers. host: localhost username: root password: postalpassword prefix: postal rabbitmq: # Specify the connection details for your RabbitMQ server. host: 127.0.0.1 username: postal password: password vhost: postalvhost dns: # Specifies the DNS record that you have configured. Refer to the documentation at # https://github.com/atech/postal/wiki/Domains-&-DNS-Configuration for further # information about these. mx_records: - mx.postal.yourdomain.com smtp_server_hostname: postal.yourdomain.com spf_include: spf.postal.yourdomain.com return_path: rp.postal.yourdomain.com route_domain: routes.postal.yourdomain.com track_domain: track.postal.yourdomain.com smtp: # Specify an SMTP server that can be used to send messages from the Postal management # system to users. You can configure this to use a Postal mail server once the # your installation has been set up. host: 127.0.0.1 port: 2525 username: # Complete when Postal is running and you can password: # generate the credentials within the interface. from_name: Postal from_address: email@example.com
Edit the file to fit your Postal settings.
When done Initialize database by adding all the appropriate table:
$ sudo postal initialize [+] Running 5/5 ⠿ smtp Pulled 0.5s ⠿ cron Pulled 0.5s ⠿ requeuer Pulled 0.5s ⠿ worker Pulled 0.5s ⠿ web Pulled 0.5s Initializing database ......
Create your initial admin user
Add your Email, Name & Suitable Password (Remember this email and password as this will be required to login to postal)
$ sudo postal make-user Postal User Creator Enter the information required to create a new Postal user. This tool is usually only used to create your initial admin user. E-Mail Address : firstname.lastname@example.org First Name : Admin Last Name : User Initial Password: : ******** User has been created with e-mail address email@example.com
Starting the application
Run the following command to start the Postal application
$ sudo postal start [+] Running 5/5 ⠿ Container postal-cron-1 Started 0.4s ⠿ Container postal-web-1 Started 0.2s ⠿ Container postal-requeuer-1 Started 0.3s ⠿ Container postal-smtp-1 Started 0.3s ⠿ Container postal-worker-1 Started 0.3s
This will run a number of containers on your machine.
You can look at the status at any time using:
$ sudo postal status NAME COMMAND SERVICE STATUS PORTS postal-cron-1 "/docker-entrypoint.…" cron running postal-requeuer-1 "/docker-entrypoint.…" requeuer running postal-smtp-1 "/docker-entrypoint.…" smtp running postal-web-1 "/docker-entrypoint.…" web running postal-worker-1 "/docker-entrypoint.…" worker running
Step 6: Configuring Caddy Web Server
A web proxy is required for all web traffic and SSL termination. There are many options for Proxy – Nginx, Apache, HAProxy, e.t.c. In this guide, we’re going to use Caddy.
We can run Caddy web server using Docker:
docker run -d \ --name postal-caddy \ --restart always \ --network host \ -v /opt/postal/config/Caddyfile:/etc/caddy/Caddyfile \ -v /opt/postal/caddy-data:/data \ caddy
Check it’s running:
$ docker ps CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES 67461a34ae39 caddy "caddy run --config …" 20 seconds ago Up 20 seconds postal-caddy 1bc1bac79c15 ghcr.io/postalserver/postal:2.1.1 "/docker-entrypoint.…" About a minute ago Up About a minute postal-smtp-1 c5a04cea4211 ghcr.io/postalserver/postal:2.1.1 "/docker-entrypoint.…" About a minute ago Up About a minute postal-worker-1 e188ee4c2844 ghcr.io/postalserver/postal:2.1.1 "/docker-entrypoint.…" About a minute ago Up About a minute postal-requeuer-1 d7335cd48fa1 ghcr.io/postalserver/postal:2.1.1 "/docker-entrypoint.…" About a minute ago Up About a minute postal-web-1 c4b1cc7a852e ghcr.io/postalserver/postal:2.1.1 "/docker-entrypoint.…" About a minute ago Up About a minute postal-cron-1
Once this has started, Caddy will issue an SSL certificate for your domain and you’ll be able to immediately access the Postal web interface and login with the user you created in one of the previous steps.
Once you have installed Postal, you can upgrade to the latest release it by running this command:
$ sudo postal upgrade warning: redirecting to https://github.com/postalserver/install/ From https://postalserver.io/start/install * branch main -> FETCH_HEAD Already up to date. No version specified, using latest available version... Upgrading to 2.1.1 [+] Running 5/5 ⠿ worker Pulled 1.5s ⠿ cron Pulled 0.5s ⠿ web Pulled 0.4s ⠿ smtp Pulled 0.5s ⠿ requeuer Pulled 0.5s Migrating database [+] Running 5/0 ⠿ Container postal-worker-1 Running 0.0s ⠿ Container postal-web-1 Running 0.0s ⠿ Container postal-smtp-1 Running 0.0s ⠿ Container postal-requeuer-1 Running 0.0s ⠿ Container postal-cron-1 Running 0.0s
Step 7: Access Postal Admin Web Dashboard
Access Postal Administration page on https://postal.yourdomain.com
You should see Let’s Encrypt SSL certificate in place if your installation was successful and login with admin user email created earlier.
You’ll get a dashboard which looks like this:
Create your first organization
Provision mail server to start sending and receiving messages using Postal.
Give your mail server a name and choose live mode.
With the basic configurations required you can now use Postal email delivery software solution.
Refer to the Postal Administration guide for further configurations.
Congratulations! You have completed setting up your own Free SMTP Server using Postal. But before you start sending emails, you have to understand some crucial concepts and follow up on the guidelines to get the best delivery rates and reach the inbox!
- Warming Up your SMTP server – We will be updating a blog about this very soon.
- rDNS (Reverse DNS)
- DMARC (Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting & Conformance)
- MX Record
- Avoid Spam Factors – IP Reputation, SPF, DKIM, DMARC, Message Body, Email List health.